↺ Download Format Kindle [ Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance (English Edition) ] ↘ Ebook Author Angela Duckworth −

↺ Download  Format Kindle [ Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance (English Edition) ] ↘ Ebook Author Angela Duckworth − ↺ Download Format Kindle [ Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance (English Edition) ] ↘ Ebook Author Angela Duckworth − Grit Chapter 1 SHOWING UP By the time you set foot on the campus of the United States Military Academy at West Point, youve earned it The admissions process for West Point is at least as rigorous as for the most selective universities Top scores on the SAT or ACT and outstanding high school grades are a must But when you apply to Harvard, you dont need to start your application in the eleventh grade, and you dont need to secure a nomination from a member of Congress, a senator, or the vice president of the United States You dont, for that matter, have to get superlative marks in a fitness assessment that includes running, push ups, sit ups, and pull ups Each year, in their junior year of high school, than 14,000 applicants begin the admissions process This pool is winnowed to just 4,000 who succeed in getting the required nomination Slightly than half of those applicantsabout 2,500meet West Points rigorous academic and physical standards, and from that select group just 1,200 are admitted and enrolled Nearly all the men and women who come to West Point were varsity athletes most were team captains And yet, one in five cadets will drop out before graduation Whats remarkable is that, historically, a substantial fraction of dropouts leave in their very first summer, during an intensive seven week training program named, even in official literature, Beast Barracks Or, for short, just Beast Who spends two years trying to get into a place and then drops out in the first two months Then again, these are no ordinary months Beast is described in the West Point handbook for new cadets as the most physically and emotionally demanding part of your four years at West Point designed to help you make the transition from new cadet to Soldier A Typical Day at Beast Barracks 5 00 a.m Wake up 5 30 a.m Reveille Formation 5 30 to 6 55 a.m Physical Training 6 55 to 7 25 a.m Personal Maintenance 7 30 to 8 15 a.m Breakfast 8 30 to 12 45 p.m Training Classes 1 00 to 1 45 p.m Lunch 2 00 to 3 45 p.m Training Classes 4 00 to 5 30 p.m Organized Athletics 5 30 to 5 55 p.m Personal Maintenance 6 00 to 6 45 p.m Dinner 7 00 to 9 00 p.m Training Classes 9 00 to 10 00 p.m Commanders Time 10 00 p.m Taps The day begins at 5 00 a.m By 5 30, cadets are in formation, standing at attention, honoring the raising of the United States flag Then follows a hard workoutrunning or calisthenicsfollowed by a nonstop rotation of marching in formation, classroom instruction, weapons training, and athletics Lights out, to a melancholy bugle song called Taps, occurs at 10 00 p.m And on the next day the routine starts over again Oh, and there are no weekends, no breaks other than meals, and virtually no contact with family and friends outside of West Point One cadets description of Beast You are challenged in a variety of ways in every developmental areamentally, physically, militarily, and socially The system will find your weaknesses, but thats the pointWest Point toughens you So, who makes it through Beast It was 2004 and my second year of graduate school in psychology when I set about answering that question, but for decades, the U.S Army has been asking the same thing In fact, it was in 1955almost fifty years before I began working on this puzzlethat a young psychologist named Jerry Kagan was drafted into the army, ordered to report to West Point, and assigned to test new cadets for the purpose of identifying who would stay and who would leave As fate would have it, Jerry was not only the first psychologist to study dropping out at West Point, he was also the first psychologist I met in college I ended up working part time in his lab for two years Jerry described early efforts to separate the wheat from the chaff at West Point as dramatically unsuccessful He recalled in particular spending hundreds of hours showing cadets cards printed with pictures and asking the young men to make up stories to fit them This test was meant to unearth deep seated, unconscious motives, and the general idea was that cadets who visualized noble deeds and courageous accomplishments should be the ones who would graduate instead of dropping out Like a lot of ideas that sound good in principle, this one didnt work so well in practice The stories the cadets told were colorful and fun to listen to, but they had absolutely nothing to do with decisions the cadets made in their actual lives Since then, several generations of psychologists devoted themselves to the attrition issue, but not one researcher could say with much certainty why some of the most promising cadets routinely quit when their training had just begun Soon after learning about Beast, I found my way to the office of Mike Matthews, a military psychologist whos been a West Point faculty member for years Mike explained that the West Point admissions process successfully identified men and women who had the potential to thrive there In particular, admissions staff calculate for each applicant something called the Whole Candidate Score, a weighted average of SAT or ACT exam scores, high school rank adjusted for the number of students in the applicants graduating class, expert appraisals of leadership potential, and performance on objective measures of physical fitness You can think of the Whole Candidate Score as West Points best guess at how much talent applicants have for the diverse rigors of its four year program In other words, its an estimate of how easily cadets will master the many skills required of a military leader The Whole Candidate Score is the single most important factor in West Point admissions, and yet it didnt reliably predict who would make it through Beast In fact, cadets with the highest Whole Candidate Scores were just as likely to drop out as those with the lowest And this was why Mikes door was open to me From his own experience joining the air force as a young man, Mike had a clue to the riddle While the rigors of his induction werent quite as harrowing as those of West Point, there were notable similarities The most important were challenges that exceeded current skills For the first time in their lives, Mike and the other recruits were being asked, on an hourly basis, to do things they couldnt yet do Within two weeks, Mike recalls, I was tired, lonely, frustrated, and ready to quitas were all of my classmates Some did quit, but Mike did not What struck Mike was that rising to the occasion had almost nothing to do with talent Those who dropped out of training rarely did so from lack of ability Rather, what mattered, Mike said, was a never give up attitude Around that time, it wasnt just Mike Matthews who was talking to me about this kind of hang in there posture toward challenge As a graduate student just beginning to probe the psychology of success, I was interviewing leaders in business, art, athletics, journalism, academia, medicine, and law Who are the people at the very top of your field What are they like What do you think makes them special Some of the characteristics that emerged in these interviews were very field specific For instance, than one businessperson mentioned an appetite for taking financial risks Youve got to be able to make calculated decisions about millions of dollars and still go to sleep at night But this seemed entirely beside the point for artists, who instead mentioned a drive to create I like making stuff I dont know why, but I do In contrast, athletes mentioned a different kind of motivation, one driven by the thrill of victory Winners love to go head to head with other people Winners hate losing In addition to these particulars, there emerged certain commonalities, and they were what interested me most No matter the field, the most successful people were lucky and talented Id heard that before, and I didnt doubt it But the story of success didnt end there Many of the people I talked to could also recount tales of rising stars who, to everyones surprise, dropped out or lost interest before they could realize their potential Apparently, it was critically importantand not at all easyto keep going after failure Some people are great when things are going well, but they fall apart when things arent High achievers described in these interviews really stuck it out This one guy, he wasnt actually the best writer at the beginning I mean, we used to read his stories and have a laugh because the writing was so, you know, clumsy and melodramatic But he got better and better, and last year he won a Guggenheim And they were constantly driven to improve Shes never satisfied Youd think she would be, by now, but shes her own harshest critic The highly accomplished were paragons of perseverance Why were the highly accomplished so dogged in their pursuits For most, there was no realistic expectation of ever catching up to their ambitions In their own eyes, they were never good enough They were the opposite of complacent And yet, in a very real sense, they were satisfied being unsatisfied Each was chasing something of unparalleled interest and importance, and it was the chaseas much as the capturethat was gratifying Even if some of the things they had to do were boring, or frustrating, or even painful, they wouldnt dream of giving up Their passion was enduring In sum, no matter the domain, the highly successful had a kind of ferocious determination that played out in two ways First, these exemplars were unusually resilient and hardworking Second, they knew in a very, very deep way what it was they wanted They not only had determination, they had direction It was this combination of passion and perseverance that made high achievers special In a word, they had grit For me, the question became How do you measure something so intangible Something that decades of military psychologists hadnt been able to quantify Something those very successful people Id interviewed said they could recognize on sight, but couldnt think of how to directly test for I sat down and looked over my interview notes And I started writing questions that captured, sometimes verbatim, descriptions of what it means to have grit Half of the questions were about perseverance They asked how much you agree with statements like I have overcome setbacks to conquer an important challenge and I finish whatever I begin The other half of the questions were about passion They asked whether your interests change from year to year and the extent to which you have been obsessed with a certain idea or project for a short time but later lost interest What emerged was the Grit Scalea test that, when taken honestly, measures the extent to which you approach life with grit In July 2004, on the second day of Beast, 1,218 West Point cadets sat down to take the Grit Scale The day before, cadets had said good bye to their moms and dads a farewell for which West Point allocates exactly ninety seconds , gotten their heads shaved just the men , changed out of civilian clothing and into the famous gray and white West Point uniform, and received their footlockers, helmets, and other gear Though they may have mistakenly thought they already knew how, they were instructed by a fourth year cadet in the proper way to stand in line Step up to my line Not on my line, not over my line, not behind my line Step up to my line Initially, I looked to see how grit scores lined up with aptitude Guess what Grit scores bore absolutely no relationship to the Whole Candidate Scores that had been so painstakingly calculated during the admissions process In other words, how talented a cadet was said nothing about their grit, and vice versa The separation of grit from talent was consistent with Mikes observations of air force training, but when I first stumbled onto this finding it came as a real surprise After all, why shouldnt the talented endure Logically, the talented should stick around and try hard, because when they do, they do phenomenally well At West Point, for example, among cadets who ultimately make it through Beast, the Whole Candidate Score is a marvelous predictor of every metric West Point tracks It not only predicts academic grades, but military and physical fitness marks as well So its surprising, really, that talent is no guarantee of grit In this book, well explore the reasons why By the last day of Beast, seventy one cadets had dropped out Grit turned out to be an astoundingly reliable predictor of who made it through and who did not The next year, I returned to West Point to run the same study This time, sixty two cadets dropped out of Beast, and again grit predicted who would stay In contrast, stayers and leavers had indistinguishable Whole Candidate Scores I looked a little closer at the individual components that make up the score Again, no differences So, what matters for making it through Beast Not your SAT scores, not your high school rank, not your leadership experience, not your athletic ability Not your Whole Candidate Score What matters is grit Does grit matter beyond West Point To find out, I looked for other situations so challenging that a lot of people drop out I wanted to know whether it was just the rigors of Beast that demanded grit, or whether, in general, grit helped people stick to their commitments The next arena where I tested grits power was sales, a profession in which daily, if not hourly, rejection is par for the course I asked hundreds of men and women employed at the same vacation time share company to answer a battery of personality questionnaires, including the Grit Scale Six months later, I revisited the company, by which time 55 percent of the salespeople were gone Grit predicted who stayed and who left Moreover, no other commonly measured personality traitincluding extroversion, emotional stability, and conscientiousnesswas as effective as grit in predicting job retention Around the same time, I received a call from the Chicago Public Schools Like the psychologists at West Point, researchers there were eager to learn about the students who would successfully earn their high school diplomas That spring, thousands of high school juniors completed an abbreviated Grit Scale, along with a battery of other questionnaires More than a year later, 12 percent of those students failed to graduate Students who graduated on schedule were grittier, and grit was a powerful predictor of graduation than how much students cared about school, how conscientious they were about their studies, and even how safe they felt at school Likewise, in two large American samples, I found that grittier adults were likely to get further in their formal schooling Adults whod earned an MBA, PhD, MD, JD, or another graduate degree were grittier than those whod only graduated from four year colleges, who were in turn grittier than those whod accumulated some college credits but no degree Interestingly, adults whod successfully earned degrees from two year colleges scored slightly higher than graduates of four year colleges This puzzled me at first, but I soon learned that the dropout rates at community colleges can be as high as 80 percent Those who defy the odds are especially gritty In parallel, I started a partnership with the Army Special Operations Forces, better known as the Green Berets These are among the armys best trained soldiers, assigned some of the toughest and most dangerous missions Training for the Green Berets is a grueling, multistage affair The stage I studied comes after nine weeks of boot camp, four weeks of infantry training, three weeks of airborne school, and four weeks of a preparation course focused on land navigation All these preliminary training experiences are very, very hard, and at every stage there are men who dont make it through But the Special Forces Selection Course is even harder In the words of its commanding general, James Parker, this is where we decide who will and who will not enter the final stages of Green Beret training The Selection Course makes Beast Barracks look like summer vacation Starting before dawn, trainees go full throttle until nine in the evening In addition to daytime and nighttime navigation exercises, there are four and six mile runs and marches, sometimes under a sixty five pound load, and attempts at an obstacle course informally known as Nasty Nick, which includes crawling through water under barbed wire, walking on elevated logs, negotiating cargo nets, and swinging from horizontal ladders Just getting to the Selection Course is an accomplishment, but even so, 42 percent of the candidates I studied voluntarily withdrew before it was over So what distinguished the men who made it through Grit What else, other than grit, predicts success in the military, education, and business In sales, I found that prior experience helpsnovices are less likely to keep their jobs than those with experience In the Chicago public school system, a supportive teacher made it likely that students would graduate And for aspiring Green Berets, baseline physical fitness at the start of training is essential But in each of these domains, when you compare people matched on these characteristics, grit still predicts success Regardless of specific attributes and advantages that help someone succeed in each of these diverse domains of challenge, grit matters in all of them The year I started graduate school, the documentary Spellbound was released The film follows three boys and five girls as they prepare for and compete in the finals of the Scripps National Spelling Bee To get to the finalsan adrenaline filled three day affair staged annually in Washington, DC, and broadcast live on ESPN, which normally focuses its programming on high stakes sports matchupsthese kids must first outspell thousands of other students from hundreds of schools across the country This means spelling increasingly obscure words without a single error, in round after round, first besting all the other students in the contestants classroom, then in their grade, school, district, and region Spellbound got me wondering To what extent is flawlessly spelling words like schottische and cymotrichous a matter of precocious verbal talent, and to what extent is grit at play I called the Bees executive director, a dynamic woman and former champion speller herself named Paige Kimble Kimble was as curious as I was to learn about the psychological makeup of winners She agreed to send out questionnaires to all 273 spellers just as soon as they qualified for the finals, which would take place several months later In return for the princely reward of a 25 gift card, about two thirds of the spellers returned the questionnaires to my lab The oldest respondent was fifteen years old, the absolute age limit according to competition rules, and the youngest was just seven In addition to completing the Grit Scale, spellers reported how much time they devoted to spelling practice On average, they practiced than an hour a day on weekdays and than two hours a day on weekends But there was a lot of variation around these averages some spellers were hardly studying at all, and some were studying as much as nine hours on a given Saturday Separately, I contacted a subsample of spellers and administered a verbal intelligence test As a group, the spellers demonstrated unusual verbal ability But there was a fairly wide range of scores, with some kids scoring at the verbal prodigy level and others average for their age When ESPN aired the final rounds of the competition, I watched all the way through to the concluding suspenseful moments when, at last, thirteen year old Anurag Kashyap correctly spelled A P P O G G I A T U R A a musical term for a kind of grace note to win the championship Then, with the final rankings in hand, I analyzed my data Heres what I found measurements of grit taken months before the final competition predicted how well spellers would eventually perform Put simply, grittier kids went further in competition How did they do it By studying many hours and, also, by competing in spelling bees What about talent Verbal intelligence also predicted getting further in competition But there was no relationship at all between verbal IQ and grit Whats , verbally talented spellers did not study any than less able spellers, nor did they have a longer track record of competition The separation of grit and talent emerged again in a separate study I ran on Ivy League undergraduates There, SAT scores and grit were, in fact, inversely correlated Students in that select sample who had higher SAT scores were, on average, just slightly less gritty than their peers Putting together this finding with the other data Id collected, I came to a fundamental insight that would guide my future work Our potential is one thing What we do with it is quite another.One of The Hottest Spring Nonfiction BooksThe Wall Street JournalA Leadership Book to Watch for in 2016The Washington PostA Must Read Business Book for 2016Forbes Grit delves into the personal ingredients of great success Its worth readingthe gist is that talent and skill are less valuable than effort Andrew Ross Sorkin, The New York TimesIt really isn t talent but practicealong with passionthat makes perfect, explains psychologist Duckworth in this illuminating book Inspiration for non geniuses everywhere.People Grit is a pop psych smash The New YorkerWith Grit, Duckworth has now put out the definitive handbook for her theory of success It parades from one essential topic to another on a float of common sense, tossing out scientific insights SlateIf you have recently bumped into that word, grit, Duckworth is the reasonIn education and parenting circles, her research has provided a much needed antipode to hovering, by which children are systematically deprived of the opportunity to experience setbacks, much less overcome themWhat sticks with you in Grit are the testimonials, collected from sources as disparate as Will Smith, William James, and Jeff Bezos s mom, that relentlessly deflate the myth of the natural.The AtlanticA fascinating tour of the psychological research on successA great service of Ms Duckworth s book is her down to earth definition of passion To be gritty, an individual doesn t need to have an obsessive infatuation with a goal Rather, he needs to show consistency over time The grittiest people have developed long term goals and are constantly working toward them.The Wall Street JournalDuckworth is the researcher most associated with the study and popularization of grit And yet what I like about her new book, Grit, is the way she is pulling away from the narrow, joyless intonations of that word, and pointing us beyond the way many schools are now teaching itMost important, she notes that the quality of our longing matters Gritty people are resilient and hard working, sure But they also, she writes, know in a very, very deep way what it is they want David Brooks, New York Times Angela Lee Duckworth Speaker TED At the University of Pennsylvania, Angela studies intangible concepts such as self control and grit to determine how they might predict both academic professional success Paul Tough Author, Speaker, Journalist Paul Journalist is author, most recently, Helping Children Succeed What Works WhyHe also author How Grit, Curiosity, Hidden Power Character Whatever It Takes Geoffrey Canada s Quest Change Harlem AmericaHe a contributing writer New York Times Magazine speaker on various topics M Inch, Pack Sandpaper Sheets Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance (English Edition)

    • Format Kindle
    • 353 pages
    • Grit: The Power of Passion and Perseverance (English Edition)
    • Angela Duckworth
    • Anglais
    • 2016-02-04T16:31+03:00