ो Format Kindle Read ↕ Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us For Free । Book Author Daniel H Pink ফ

ो Format Kindle Read ↕ Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us For Free । Book Author Daniel H Pink ফ ो Format Kindle Read ↕ Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us For Free । Book Author Daniel H Pink ফ INTRODUCTIONThe Puzzling Puzzles ofHarry Harlow and Edward DeciIn the middle of the last century, two young scientists conductedexperiments that should have changed the world but did not.Harry F Harlow was a professor of psychology at the Universityof Wisconsin who, in the 1940s, established one of the worlds firstlaboratories for studying primate behavior One day in 1949, Harlowand two colleagues gathered eight rhesus monkeys for a two weekexperiment on learning The researchers devised a simple mechanicalpuzzle like the one pictured on the next page Solving it requiredthree steps pull out the vertical pin, undo the hook, and lift thehinged cover Pretty easy for you and me, far challenging for athirteen pound lab monkey. Harlows puzzle in the starting left and solved right positions.The experimenters placed the puzzles in the monkeys cages toobserve how they reacted and to prepare them for tests of theirproblem solving prowess at the end of the two weeks But almostimmediately, something strange happened Unbidden by any outsideurging and unprompted by the experimenters, the monkeys beganplaying with the puzzles with focus, determination, and what lookedlike enjoyment And in short order, they began figuring out how thecontraptions worked By the time Harlow tested the monkeys ondays 13 and 14 of the experiment, the primates had become quiteadept They solved the puzzles frequently and quickly two thirds ofthe time they cracked the code in less than sixty seconds.Now, this was a bit odd Nobody had taught the monkeys howto remove the pin, slide the hook, and open the cover Nobody hadrewarded them with food, affection, or even quiet applause whenthey succeeded And that ran counter to the accepted notions of howprimates including the bigger brained, less hairy primates knownas human beings behaved.Scientists then knew that two main drives powered behavior Thefirst was the biological drive Humans and other animals ate to satetheir hunger, drank to quench their thirst, and copulated to satisfytheir carnal urges But that wasnt happening here Solution did notlead to food, water, or sex gratification, Harlow reported.1But the only other known drive also failed to explain the monkeyspeculiar behavior If biological motivations came from within,this second drive came from without the rewards and punishmentsthe environment delivered for behaving in certain ways This wascertainly true for humans, who responded exquisitely to such externalforces If you promised to raise our pay, wed work harder If youheld out the prospect of getting an A on the test, wed study longer.If you threatened to dock us for showing up late or for incorrectlycompleting a form, wed arrive on time and tick every box But thatdidnt account for the monkeys actions either As Harlow wrote, andyou can almost hear him scratching his head, The behavior obtainedin this investigation poses some interesting questions for motivationtheory, since significant learning was attained and efficient performancemaintained without resort to special or extrinsic incentives.What else could it be To answer the question, Harlow offered a novel theory whatamounted to a third drive The performance of the task, he said,provided intrinsic reward The monkeys solved the puzzles simplybecause they found it gratifying to solve puzzles They enjoyed it.The joy of the task was its own reward.If this notion was radical, what happened next only deepened theconfusion and controversy Perhaps this newly discovered driveHarlow eventually called it intrinsic motivation was real Butsurely it was subordinate to the other two drives If the monkeyswere rewarded with raisins for solving the puzzles, theyd nodoubt perform even better Yet when Harlow tested that approach,the monkeys actually made errors and solved the puzzles lessfrequently Introduction of food in the present experiment, Harlowwrote, served to disrupt performance, a phenomenon not reportedin the literature.Now, this was really odd In scientific terms, it was akin to rollinga steel ball down an inclined plane to measure its velocityonly to watch the ball fl oat into the air instead It suggested thatour understanding of the gravitational pulls on our behavior wasinadequate that what we thought were fixed laws had plenty ofloopholes Harlow emphasized the strength and persistence of themonkeys drive to complete the puzzles Then he noted It would appear that this drive may be as basic and strongas the other drives Further, there is some reason tobelieve that it can be as efficient in facilitating learning.2At the time, however, the prevailing two drives held a tight grip onscientific thinking So Harlow sounded the alarm He urged scientiststo close down large sections of our theoretical junkyard andoffer fresher, accurate accounts of human behavior.3 He warnedthat our explanation of why we did what we did was incomplete Hesaid that to truly understand the human condition, we had to takeaccount of this third drive.Then he pretty much dropped the whole idea.Rather than battle the establishment and begin offering a complete view of motivation, Harlow abandoned this contentiousline of research and later became famous for studies on the scienceof affection.4 His notion of this third drive bounced around the psychologicalliterature, but it remained on the periphery of behavioralscience and of our understanding of ourselves It would be twodecades before another scientist picked up the thread that Harlowhad so provocatively left on that Wisconsin laboratory table.In the summer of 1969, Edward Deci was a Carnegie Mellon Universitypsychology graduate student in search of a dissertation topic.Deci, who had already earned an MBA from Wharton, was intriguedby motivation but suspected that scholars and businesspeople hadmisunderstood it So, tearing a page from the Harlow playbook, heset out to study the topic with the help of a puzzle.Deci chose the Soma puzzle cube, a then popular Parker Brothersoffering that, thanks to YouTube, retains something of a cultfollowing today The puzzle, shown below, consists of seven plasticpieces six comprising four one inch cubes, one comprising threeone inch cubes Players can assemble the seven pieces into a few millionpossible combinations from abstract shapes to recognizableobjects. The seven pieces of the Soma puzzle unassembled left and then fashioned into one ofseveral million possible configurationsFor the study, Deci divided participants, male and female universitystudents, into an experimental group what Ill call GroupA and a control group what Ill call Group B Each participated inthree one hour sessions held on consecutive days.Heres how the sessions worked Each participant entered a roomand sat at a table on top of which were the seven Soma puzzle pieces,drawings of three puzzle configurations, and copies of Time, The NewYorker, and Playboy Hey, it was 1969 Deci sat on the opposite endof the table to explain the instructions and to time performance witha stopwatch.In the first session, members of both groups had to assemble theSoma pieces to replicate the configurations before them In the secondsession, they did the same thing with different drawings onlythis time Deci told Group A that theyd be paid 1 the equivalentof nearly 6 today for every configuration they successfully reproduced.Group B, meanwhile, got new drawings but no pay Finally,in the third session, both groups received new drawings and had toreproduce them for no compensation, just as in session one See thetable below The twist came midway through each session After a participanthad assembled the Soma puzzle pieces to match two of the threedrawings, Deci halted the proceedings He said that he was going togive them a fourth drawingbut to choose the right one, he neededto feed their completion times into a computer And this being thelate 1960s, when room straddling mainframes were the norm anddesktop PCs were still a decade away that meant he had to leavefor a little while.On the way out, he said, I shall be gone only a few minutes, youmay do whatever you like while Im gone But Deci wasnt reallyplugging numbers into an ancient teletype Instead, he walked toan adjoining room connected to the experiment room by a one waywindow Then, for exactly eight minutes, he watched what peopledid when left alone Did they continue fiddling with the puzzle,perhaps attempting to reproduce the third drawing Or did they dosomething else page through the magazines, check out the centerfold,stare into space, catch a quick nap In the first session, not surprisingly, there wasnt much differencebetween what the Group A and Group B participants did duringthat secretly watched eight minute free choice period Both continuedplaying with the puzzle, on average, for between three and ahalf and four minutes, suggesting they found it at least somewhatinteresting.On the second day, during which Group A participants were paidfor each successful configuration and Group B participants were not, theunpaid group behaved mostly as they had during the first free choiceperiod But the paid group suddenly got really interested in Soma puzzles.On average, the people in Group A spent than five minutesmessing with the puzzle, perhaps getting a head start on that thirdchallenge or gearing up for the chance to earn some beer money whenDeci returned This makes intuitive sense, right Its consistent withwhat we believe about motivation Reward me and Ill work harder.Yet what happened on the third day confirmed Decis own suspicionsabout the peculiar workings of motivation and gently calledinto question a guiding premise of modern life This time, Deci toldthe participants in Group A that there was only enough money topay them for one day and that this third session would therefore beunpaid Then things unfolded just as before two puzzles, followedby Decis interruption.During the ensuing eight minute free choice period, the subjectsin the never been paid Group B actually played with the puzzlefor a little longer than they had in previous sessions Maybe theywere becoming ever engaged maybe it was just a statisticalquirk But the subjects in Group A, who previously had been paid,responded differently They now spent significantly less time playingwith the puzzle not only about two minutes less than duringtheir paid session, but about a full minute less than in the firstsession when they initially encountered, and obviously enjoyed, thepuzzles.In an echo of what Harlow discovered two decades earlier, Decirevealed that human motivation seemed to operate by laws that rancounter to what most scientists and citizens believed From the officeto the playing field, we knew what got people going Rewardsespecially cold, hard cash intensified interest and enhanced performance.What Deci found, and then confirmed in two additionalstudies he conducted shortly thereafter, was almost the opposite.When money is used as an external reward for some activity, thesubjects lose intrinsic interest for the activity, he wrote.5 Rewardscan deliver a short term boost just as a jolt of caffeine can keepyou cranking for a few hours But the effect wears off and,worse, can reduce a persons longer term motivation to continue theproject.Human beings, Deci said, have an inherent tendency to seekout novelty and challenges, to extend and exercise their capacities,to explore, and to learn But this third drive was fragile thanthe other two it needed the right environment to survive Onewho is interested in developing and enhancing intrinsic motivationin children, employees, students, etc., should not concentrate onexternal control systems such as monetary rewards, he wrote in afollow up paper.6 Thus began what for Deci became a lifelong questto rethink why we do what we do a pursuit that sometimes puthim at odds with fellow psychologists, got him fired from a businessschool, and challenged the operating assumptions of organizationseverywhere.It was controversial, Deci told me one spring morning fortyyears after the Soma experiments Nobody was expecting rewardswould have a negative effect.This is a book about motivation I will show that much of whatwe believe about the subject just isnt so and that the insights thatHarlow and Deci began uncovering a few decades ago come muchcloser to the truth The problem is that most businesses haventcaught up to this new understanding of what motivates us Too manyorganizations not just companies, but governments and nonprofitsas well still operate from assumptions about human potential andindividual performance that are outdated, unexamined, and rooted in folklore than in science They continue to pursue practicessuch as short term incentive plans and pay for performance schemesin the face of mounting evidence that such measures usually dontwork and often do harm Worse, these practices have infiltrated ourschools, where we ply our future workforce with iPods, cash, andpizza coupons to incentivize them to learn Something has gonewrong.The good news is that the solution stands before us in thework of a band of behavioral scientists who have carried on the pioneeringefforts of Harlow and Deci and whose quiet work over thelast half century offers us a dynamic view of human motivation.For too long, theres been a mismatch between what scienceknows and what business does The goal of this book is to repair thatbreach. Drive has three parts Part One will look at the fl aws in ourreward and punishment system and propose a new way to thinkabout motivation Chapter 1 will examine how the prevailing viewof motivation is becoming incompatible with many aspects of contemporarybusiness and life Chapter 2 will reveal the seven reasonswhy carrot and stick extrinsic motivators often produce theopposite of what they set out to achieve Following that is a shortaddendum, Chapter 2a, that shows the special circumstances whencarrots and sticks actually can be effective Chapter 3 will introducewhat I call Type I behavior, a way of thinking and an approach tobusiness grounded in the real science of human motivation and poweredby our third drive our innate need to direct our own lives, tolearn and create new things, and to do better by ourselves and ourworld.Part Two will examine the three elements of Type I behavior andshow how individuals and organizations are using them to improveperformance and deepen satisfaction Chapter 4 will explore autonomy,our desire to be self directed Chapter 5 will look at mastery,our urge to get better and better at what we do Chapter 6 willexplore purpose, our yearning to be part of something larger thanourselves.Part Three, the Type I Toolkit, is a comprehensive set of resourcesto help you create settings in which Type I behavior can fl ourish.Here youll find everything from dozens of exercises to awakenmotivation in yourself and others, to discussion questions for yourbook club, to a supershort summary of Drive that will help youfake your way through a cocktail party And while this book ismostly about business, in this section Ill offer some thoughts abouthow to apply these concepts to education and to our lives outside ofwork.But before we get down to all that, lets begin with a thoughtexperiment, one that requires going back in time to the days whenJohn Major was Britains prime minister, Barack Obama was a skinnyyoung law professor, Internet connections were dial up, and a blackberrywas still just a fruit.Pink makes a convincing case that organizations ignore intrinsic motivation at their peril Scientific American Persuasive .Harnessing the power of intrinsic motivation rather than extrinsic remuneration can be thoroughly satisfying and infinitely rewarding Miami Herald These lessons are worth repeating, and if companies feel emboldened to follow Mr Pink s advice, then so much the better Wall Street Journal Pink is rapidly acquiring international guru status He is an engaging writer, who challenges and provokes Financial Times Pink s ideas deserve a wide hearing Corporate boards, in fact, could do well by kicking out their pay consultants for an hour and reading Pink s conclusions instead Forbes Pink s deft traversal of research at the intersection of psychology and economics make this a worthwhile read no sticks necessary SEED Pink continues his engaging exploration of how we work Inc Magazine Pink s a gifted writer who turns even the heaviest scientific study into something digestible and often amusing without losing his intellectual punch New York Post A worthwhile read It reminds us that those of us on the right side of the brain are driven furthest and fastest in pursuit of what we love Minneapolis Star Tribune Pink s analysis and new model of motivation offers tremendous insight into our deepest nature Publishers Weekly Important readingan integral addition to a growing body of literature that argues for a radical shift in how businesses operate Kirkus Drive is the rare book that will get you to think and inspire you to act Pink makes a strong, science based case for rethinking motivation and then provides the tools you need to transform your life Dr Mehmet Oz, co author of YOU The Owners Manual Drive The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us topic of this article may not meet Wikipedia s general notability guideline Please help to establish by citing reliable secondary sources that are independent the and provide significant coverage it beyond a mere trivial mention If cannot be established, is likely merged, redirected, or deleted Drive Kindle edition Daniel H Pink Download once read on your device, PC, phones tablets Use features like bookmarks, note taking highlighting while reading New York Times bestseller gives readers paradigm shattering new way think about motivation Most people believe best motivate with rewards money carrot stick approach That mistake, says author To Sell Is Human Motivating OthersIn provocative persuasive book, he asserts Auto Suggestions available you type at least letters up arrow for mozilla firefox browser alt down review enter select Reasons Low Sex in Women Tips sex drive women serious problem ignored many providers list find out root cause low libido fix today Book Review Entrepreneur one those books makes wonder why we having so much trouble getting over command control face The surprising reason some countries left Some territories use hand traffic, practice believed have originated ancient Rome defend against enemy attacks Following transcript Marx Was Right Five Ways Karl Marx Predicted Music, Film, TV Political News Coverage Dan puzzle TED Talk Career analyst Dan examines motivation, starting fact social scientists know but most managers don t Traditional aren always as effective Listen illuminating stories maybe, forward Building Team You Need Change Forbes May , John Kotter talks building guiding coalition change organization millennials buying Nov Roughly millennial car buyers plan Uber, Lyft another similar service, according report Patrick T Fallon Bloomberg Adam Grant habits original thinkers Seven years ago, student came me asked invest his company He said, I m working three friends, re going try disrupt an industry selling stuff online Link Between Customer Experience And Jul Opinions expressed Forbes Contributors their own write leveraging neuroscience create remarkable leadership Data Q CX Management Survey organizations Odd, Intriguing, Facts World War Historical fiction author, Gabriele Wills, shares her extensive research into Great fasinating facts, lists WWI books, websites related From Pink, groundbreaking A Whole Mind, comes next big idea book changing examination what truly motivates us how harness knowledge greater satisfaction our lives work fourth non was published December Riverhead Hardcover In text, argues human largely intrinsic, aspects can divided autonomy, mastery, purpose Ostensibly, share truth motiv shocked learn gap exists, attributed decision emphasize existence attract corporate speaking engagements, consultancies, Op Ed articles national newspapers RSA ANIMATE Apr This lively RSA Animate, adapted from talk RSA, illustrates hidden truths behind really home workplace Us, suggests world currently does acknowledge drives twenty first century biological drive, which refers Motivation urges eat procreate Summary Home Book Reward good behaviours punish bad familiar Animate Vimeo, high quality videos who Vimeo November has, end summaries whole each chapter get Pink ourselves others external in, Notes throws cold water standard management thinking fact, seven reasons reward punishment model if trying teammates As Others explains Drive, secret performance deeply need direct lives, Autonomy, Mastery, Purpose Science Brain Pickings has free Sunday digest week interesting inspiring across art, science, philosophy, creativity, children other strands time billable hours business models rare will inspire act strong, science based case rethinking then provides tools transform life Libido Boosters Health How Your Period Changes s, Here guide expect decade Like Rubik cube early Soma game, released Parker Brothers wildly popular Consisting pieces could assembled well variety dimensional shapes, known captivate adultsDaniel Wikipedia born Four featured bestsellers host co executive producer National Geographic Channel series Crowd Control Books Free Agent NYT WSJ Bestselling Author Drive researched never boring study turning point Wall Street Journal should understanding timing insights little scientific studies accessible By end, carefully they divide theirs days organize A Mind Why Brainers Will Rule Future Look When Scientific Secrets Perfect Timing future belongs different kind person mind artists, inventors, storytellers creative holistic right brain whose abilities mark fault line between gets ahead doesn About Short Bio six including newest, Timing, spent four months been named iBooks, Goodreads, several outlets His include long running Review rich source cutting edge fields psychology, biology economics Kim Hartman summary brainers rule Hartman important insightful parts Walk Talk Training Books, Building Walk offers resources development program ideas, highly leaders, team training, ethics leadership, improvement aids Ash Shoes Footwear Ash Founded footwear combines knowhow passion directors Leonello Calvani Ithier Fusing vision finest Italian 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    • Format Kindle
    • 9781594488849
    • Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us
    • Daniel H Pink
    • Anglais
    • 2016-03-08T05:29+02:00