ꍆ Free ᚙ Why We Get Fat: And What to Do About It online Ѿ Book By Gary Taubes थ

ꍆ Free ᚙ Why We Get Fat: And What to Do About It online Ѿ Book By Gary Taubes थ ꍆ Free ᚙ Why We Get Fat: And What to Do About It online Ѿ Book By Gary Taubes थ INTRODUCTIONThe Original SinIn 1934, a young German pediatrician named Hilde Bruch moved to America, settled in New York City, and was startled, as she later wrote, by the number of fat children she saw really fat ones, not only in clinics, but on the streets and subways, and in schools Indeed, fat children in New York were so conspicuous that other European immigrants would ask Bruch about it, assuming that she would have an answer What is the matter with American children they would ask Why are they so bloated and blown up Many would say theyd never seen so many children in such a state.Today we hear such questions all the time, or we ask them ourselves, with the continual reminders that we are in the midst of an epidemic of obesity as is the entire developed world Similar questions are asked about fat adults Why are they so bloated and blown up Or you might ask yourself Why am I But this was New York City in the mid 1930s This was two decades before the first Kentucky Fried Chicken and McDonalds franchises, when fast food as we know it today was born This was half a century before supersizing and high fructose cornsyrup More to the point, 1934 was the depths of the Great Depression, an era of soup kitchens, bread lines, and unprecedentedunemployment One in every four workers in the United States was unemployed Six out of every ten Americans were living inpoverty In New York City, where Bruch and her fellow immigrants were astonished by the adiposity of the local children, one in four children were said to be malnourished How could this be A year after arriving in New York, Bruch established a clinic at Columbia Universitys College of Physicians and Surgeons to treat obese children In 1939, she published the first of a series of reports on her exhaustive studies of the many obese children she had treated, although almost invariably without success From interviews with her patients and their families, she learned that these obese children did indeed eat excessive amounts of foodno matter how much either they or their parents might initially deny it Telling them to eat less, though, just didnt work, and no amount of instruction or compassion, counseling, or exhortations of either children or parentsseemed to help It was hard to avoid, Bruch said, the simple fact that these children had, after all, spent their entire lives trying to eat in moderation and so control their weight, or at least thinking about eating less than they did, and yet they remained obese Some of these children, Bruch reported, made strenuous efforts to lose weight, practically giving up on living to achieve it But maintaining a lower weight involved living on a continuous semi starvation diet, and they just couldnt do it, even though obesity made them miserable and social outcasts.One of Bruchs patients was a fine boned girl in her teens, literally disappearing in mountains of fat This young girl had spent her life fighting both her weight and her parents attempts to help her slim down She knew what she had to do, or so she believed, as did her parentsshe had to eat lessand the struggle to do this defined her existence I always knew that life depended on your figure, she told Bruch I was always unhappy and depressed when gaining weight There was nothing to live for I actually hated myself I just could not stand it I didnt want to look at myself I hated mirrors They showed how fat I was It never made me feel happy to eat and get fatbut I never could see a solution for it and so I kept on getting fatter.Like Bruchs fine boned girl, those of us who are overweight or obese will spend much of our lives trying to eat less, or at least eat not too much Sometimes we succeed, sometimes we fail, but the fight goes on For some, like Bruchs patients, the battle begins in childhood For others, it starts in college with the freshman twenty, that cushion of fat that appears around waist and hipswhile spending the first year away from home Still others begin to realize in their thirties or forties that being lean is no longer the effortless achievement it once was.Should we be fatter than the medical authorities would prefer, and should we visit a doctor for any reason, that doctor is likely tosuggest or less forcefully that we do something about it Obesity and overweight, so well be told, are associated with an increased risk of virtually every chronic disease that ails usheart disease, stroke, diabetes, cancer, dementia, asthma Well be instructed to exercise regularly, to diet, to eat less, as though the thought of doing so, the desire to do so, would never otherwise have crossed our minds More than in any other illness, as Bruch said about obesity, the physician is called upon only to do a special trick, to make the patient do somethingstop eating after it has already been proved that he cannot do it The physicians of Bruchs era werent thoughtless, and the doctors of today are not, either They merely have a flawed belief systema paradigmthat stipulates that the reason we get fat is clear and incontrovertible, as is the cure We get fat, our physicians tell us, because we eat too much and or move too little, and so the cure is to do the opposite If nothing else, we should eat not too much, as Michael Pollan famously prescribes in his best selling book In Defense of Food, and this will suffice At least we wont get fatter still This is what Bruch described in 1957 as the prevalent American attitude that the problem of obesity is simply one of eating than the body needs, and now its the prevalent attitude worldwide.We can call this the calories in calories out or the overeating paradigm of excess fatthe energy balance paradigm, ifwe want to get technical The fundamental cause of obesity and overweight, as the World Health Organization says, is an energy imbalance between calories consumed on one hand, and calories expended on the other hand We get fat when we take in energy than we expend a positive energy balance, in the scientific terminology , and we get lean when we expend than we take in a negative energy balance Food is energy, and we measure that energy in the form of calories So, if we take in calories than we expend, we get fatter If we take in fewer calories, we get leaner.This way of thinking about our weight is so compelling and so pervasive that it is virtually impossible nowadays not to believe it Even if we have plenty of evidence to the contraryno matter how much of our lives weve spent consciously trying to eat less and exercise without successits likely that well question our own judgment and our own willpower than we will this notion that our adiposity is determined by how many calories we consume and expend.My favorite example of this thinking came from a wellrespected exercise physiologist, a co author of a set of physical activity and health guidelines that were published in August 2007 by the American Heart Association and the American College of Sports Medicine This fellow told me that he personally had been short, fat, and bald when he first took up distance running in the 1970s, and now he was in his late sixties and was short, fatter, and bald In the intervening years, he said, he had gained thirty odd pounds and run maybe eighty thousand milesthe equivalent, or less, of running three times around the Earth at the equator He believed that there was a limit to how much exercise could help him maintain his weight, but he also believed hewould be fatter still if he hadnt been running.When I asked him whether he really thought he might be leaner had he run even , maybe run four times around the planet instead of three, he said, I dont see how I could have been active I had no time to do But if I could have gone out over the last couple of decades for two to three hours a day, maybe I would not have gained this weight And the point is that maybe he would have anyway, but he just couldnt wrap his head around that possibility As sociologists of science would say,he was trapped in a paradigm.Over the years, this calories in calories out paradigm of excess fat has proved to be remarkably resistant to any evidence to thecontrary Imagine a murder trial in which one credible witness after another takes the stand and testifies that the suspect was elsewhere at the time of the killing and so had an airtight alibi, and yet the jurors keep insisting that the defendant is guilty, because thats what they believed when the trial began Consider the obesity epidemic Here we are as a population getting fatter and fatter Fifty years ago, one in every eight or nine Americans would have been officially considered obese, and today its one in every three Two in three are now considered overweight, which means theyre carrying around weight than the public health authorities deem to be healthy Children are fatter, adolescents are fatter, even newborn babies are emerging from the womb fatter Throughout the decades of this obesity epidemic, the calories in calories out, energy balance notion has held sway, and so the health officials assume that either were not paying attention to what theyve been telling useat less and exercise or we just cant help ourselves.Malcolm Gladwell discussed this paradox in The New Yorker in 1998 We have been told that we must not take in calories than we burn, that we cannot lose weight if we dont exercise consistently, he wrote That few of us are able to actually follow this advice is either our fault or the fault of the advice Medical orthodoxy, naturally, tends toward the former position Diet bookstend toward the latter Given how often the medical orthodoxy has been wrong in the past, that position is not, on its face, irrational Its worth finding out whether it is true.After interviewing the requisite number of authorities, Gladwell decided that it was our fault, that we simply lack the discipline or the wherewithal to eat less and move although for some of us, he suggested, bad genes extract a greater price in adiposity for our moral failings I will argue in this book that the fault lies entirely with the medical orthodoxyboth the belief that excess fat is caused by consuming excess calories, and the advice that stems from it Im going to argue that this calories in calories out paradigm of adiposity is nonsensical that we dont get fat because we eat too much and move too little, and that we cant solve the problem or prevent it by consciously doing the opposite This is the original sin, so to speak, and were never going to solve our own weight problems, let alone the societal problems of obesity and diabetes and the diseases that accompany them, until we understand this and correct it I dont mean to imply, though, that there is a magic recipe to losing weight, or at least not one that doesnt include sacrifice The question is, what has to be sacrificed The first part of this book will present the evidence against the calories in calories out hypothesis It will discuss many of the observations, the facts of life, that this concept fails to explain, why we came to believe it anyway, and what mistakes were madeas a result.The second part of this book will present the way of thinking about obesity and excess fat that European medical researchers came to accept just prior to the Second World War They argued, as I will, that it is absurd to think about obesity as caused by overeating, because anything that makes people growwhether in height or in weight, in muscle or in fatwill make them overeat Children, for example, dont grow taller because they eat voraciously and consume calories than they expend Theyeat so muchovereatbecause theyre growing They need to take in calories than they expend The reason children grow is that theyre secreting hormones that make them do soin this case, growth hormone And there is every reason to believe that the growth of our fat tissue leading to overweight and obesity is also driven and controlled by hormones.So, rather than define obesity as a disorder of energy balance or eating too much, as the experts have for the past half century, these European medical researchers started from the idea that obesity is fundamentally a disorder of excess fat accumulation This is what a philosopher would call first principles Its so obviously true that it seems almost meaningless to say it But once we do, then the natural question to ask is, what regulates fat accumulation Because whatever hormones or enzymes work to increase our fat accumulation naturallyjust as growth hormone makes children groware going to be the very likely suspects on which to focus to determine why some of us get fat and others dont.Regrettably, the European medical research community barely survived the Second World War, and these physicians and their ideas about obesity werent around in the late 1950s and early 1960s, when this question of what regulates fat accumulation was answered As it turns out, two factors will essentially determine how much fat we accumulate, both having to do with the hormone insulin.First, when insulin levels are elevated, we accumulate fat in our fat tissue when these levels fall, we liberate fat from the fat tissueand burn it for fuel This has been known since the early 1960s and has never been controversial Second, our insulin levels are effectively determined by the carbohydrates we eatnot entirely, but for all intents and purposes The carbohydrateswe eat, and the easier they are to digest and the sweeter they are, the insulin we will ultimately secrete, meaning that the level of it in our bloodstream is greater and so is the fat we retain in our fat cells Carbohydrate is driving insulin is driving fat, ishow George Cahill, a former professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, recently described this to me Cahill had done some of the early research on the regulation of fat accumulation in the 1950s, and then he coedited an eight hundred page American Physiological Society compendium of this research that was published in 1965.In other words, the science itself makes clear that hormones, enzymes, and growth factors regulate our fat tissue, just as they do everything else in the human body, and that we do not get fat because we overeat we get fat because the carbohydrates in ourdiet make us fat The science tells us that obesity is ultimately the result of a hormonal imbalance, not a caloric onespecifically,the stimulation of insulin secretion caused by eating easily di gestible, carbohydrate rich foods refined carbohydrates, includingflour and cereal grains, starchy vegetables such as potatoes, and sugars, like sucrose table sugar and high fructose corn syrup These carbohydrates literally make us fat, and by driving us to accumulate fat, they make us hungrier and they make ussedentary.This is the fundamental reality of why we fatten, and if were to get lean and stay lean well have to understand and accept it,and, perhaps important, our doctors are going to have to understand and acknowledge it, too If your goal in reading this book is simply to be told the answer to the question What do I do to remain lean or lose the excess fat I have then this is it stay away from carbohydrate rich foods, and the sweeter the food or the easier it is to consume and digestliquid carbohydrates like beer, fruit juices, and sodas are probably the worstthe likely it is to make you fat and the you should avoid it.This is certainly not a new message Until the 1960s, as Ill discuss later, it was the conventional wisdom Carbohydrate rich foodsbread, pasta, potatoes, sweets, beerwere seen to be uniquely fattening, and if you wanted to avoid being fat, you didnt eat them Since then, it has been the message of an unending string of often best selling diet books But this essential fact has been so abused, and the relevant science so distorted or misinterpreted, both by proponents of these carbohydrate restricted diets and by those who insist that they are dangerous fads the American Heart Association among them that I want to lay it out once If you find the argument sufficiently compelling that you want to change your diet accordingly, then all the better I will give some advice on how to do so, based on thelessons learned by clinicians who have years of experience usingthese diets to treat their overweight and often diabetic patients.In the than six decades since the end of the Second World War, when this question of what causes us to fattencalories or carbohydrateshas been argued, it has often seemed like a religious issue rather than a scientific one So many different belief systems enter into the question of what constitutes a healthy diet that the scientific questionwhy do we get fat has gotten lost along the way Its been overshadowed by ethical, moral, and sociological considerations that are valid in themselves and certainlyworth discussing but have nothing to do with the science itself and arguably no place in a scientific inquiry Carbohydrate restricted diets typically if not, perhaps, ideally replace the carbohydrates in the diet with large or at least larger portions of animal productbeginning with eggs for breakfast and moving to meat, fish, or fowl for lunch and dinner The implications of that are proper to debate Isnt our dependence on animal products already bad for the environment, and wont it just get worse Isnt livestock production a major contributor to global warming, water shortages, and pollution When thinking about a healthy diet, shouldnt we think about whats good for the planet as well as whats good for us Do we have a right to kill animals for our food or put them to work for us in producing it Isnt the only morally and ethically defensible lifestyle a vegetarian one or even a vegan one These are all important questions that need to be addressed, as individuals and as a society But they have no place in the scientific and medical discussion of why we get fat And thats what I am setting out to explore herejust as Hilde Bruch did than seventy years ago Why are we fat Why are our children fat What can we do about itWell researched and thoughtful Reconsidering how our diet affects our bodies, how we might modify it to be healthier, and being less harsh with those who struggle with their weight are all worthy goals Taubes has done us a great service by bringing these issues to the table Dennis Rosen, The Boston GlobeLess dense and easier to read than Good Calories, Bad Calories but no less revelatory Jeff Baker, The OregonianTaubess critique is so pointed and vociferous that reading him will change the way you look at calories, the food pyramid, and your daily diet Mens Journal Gary Taubes is a science journalists science journalist, who researches topics to the point of obsessionactually, well beyond that pointand never dumbs things down for readers John Horgan, Scientific AmericanImportant This excellent book, built on sound research and common sense, contains essential information Larry Cox, Tucson CitizenThis brave, paradigm shifting man uses logic and the primary literature to unhinge the nutritional mantra of the last 80 years ChoiceAggressive An exhaustive investigation Casey Schwartz, The Daily BeastPassionate and urgent Backed by a persuasive amount of detail As an award winning scientific journalist who spent the past decade rigorously tracking down and assimilating obesity research, hes uniquely qualified to understand and present the big picture of scientific opinions and results Despite legions of researchers and billions of government dollars expended, Taubes is the one to painstakingly compile this information, assimilate it, and make it available to the public Taubes does the important and extraordinary work of pulling it all together for us Karen Bentley, Seattle Post IntelligencerClear and accessible Taubess conviction alone makes Why We Get Fat well worth considering Lacey Galbraith, BookpageAn enlightening treatise that is meticulously researched yet approachable by all, this will captivate anyone interested in the science of diet and disease Starred review, Library JournalThis is the book you can give to people who want to understand the science of why youre finally losing weight without being hungry and miserable doing it Tom Naughton, FatHead Why We Get Fat is nothing short of tremendous This is a seminal book What if the calories in calories out hypothesis is wrong What if weve spent two generations and billions of dollars re engineering our food system and altering our eating habits away from fat and making ourselves fatter and unhealthier as a result Thats what Taubes convincingly argues with clear logic, specific evidence, and brilliant illustrations on every page John Durant, Hunter GathererCompelling Gary Taubes has done it again Why We Get Fat takes a hard look at the commonly held belief that the reason why we gain weight is because we consume calories than we expend and turns it upside down Packed with eye opening information and elucidating studies Diets in ReviewThis is the book I knew was inside of Good Calories, Bad Calories Why We Get Fat is the book to give to friends, doctors, congressmen, and anyone else who wants to understand the futility of our current nutritional advice Clearly, obviously, succinctly, Taubes shows us how scientific theories that explained obesity as a hormonal rather than moral issue were abandoned during World War II for simplistic theories based on thermodynamics that work in physics, but make no sense when used to describe the behavior of complex biological systems LowCarbConfidential Why We Buy The Science Of Shopping Paco Underhill Fulfillment by FBA is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in s fulfillment centers, and directly pack, ship, provide customer for these Trump compromising claims How why did get here Paul Wood examines the background fallout concerning allegations about president elect Russell Foster Why do sleep TED Talk Russell circadian neuroscientist He studies cycles of brain And he asks What know Not lot, it turns out, something with one third our lives In this talk, shares three popular theories sleep, busts some myths how much need at different ages hints bold new uses as Helen Fisher love, cheat Anthropologist Helen takes on tricky topic love explains its evolution, biochemical foundations social importance She closes warning potential disaster inherent antidepressant abuse Kallpod Restaurant Systems Hotel Resorts Systems Kallpod leading provider bespoke communications solutions offering staff systems, guest restaurant pagers, wireless systems hospital to enhance way people communicate venues operate are building Cardano Introduction Leave Feedback thank you advance taking time us very important feedback It will help going forward relevant information project sentimental Does serve purpose Function teary eyed special song link between smell memory emotions wrong sentimentality Think SparkNotes Help Help Welcome SparkNotes re your brilliant, book smart best friend, ace test, transform paper into pure gold, understand even most intricately plotted Shakespeare plays Women Aren t Funny Vanity Fair researchers found men women share same humor response system both use similar degree part responsible semantic knowledge juxtaposition Rugby News Results Features Match Centre SANZAAR thumbed noses Pacific team REACTION An ambitious bid set up Islands Super Rugby has failed, Fiji Union revealed Thursday Gary Taubes Author Case Against Sugar, Get Father once measured thirty grown Yahgan tallest was five feet inches shortest just under four eight, average height being two quarter Wikipedia Gary born April , an American science writer author Nobel Dreams Bad Short Life Weird Times Cold Fusion Good Calories, Calories titled Diet Delusion UK Australia gary taubes garytaubes Twitter latest Tweets from gary Fat, Science, Good Fats, Carbs, Sep A vitally book, destined change think food Michael Pollan, Defense Food brave journalist who does not accept conventional wisdom An Open Letter To Low Carb Zealot James Fell Even Ted Cruz knows when beat, but Your writings nutrition weight loss have been annoying thorn side scientific evidence since penned big fat lie piece New York years ago I wasn so skeptical back then, Fat Nutshell Infographic About Dave Asprey founder CEO Bulletproof, creator widely Bulletproof Coffee bestselling author, host Webby award winning podcast Radio, featured Today show, Fox News, Nightline, Dr Cholesterol Practices YouTube Nov Taubes, responds question relevance cholesterol testing role heart disease What if All Been Big Lie Times Jul article says medical establishment may caused nation obesity epidemic recommending low fat, high Thin Body Evidence Have Doubts When someone divides complex phenomenon basic categories, invariably oversimplifies distorts reality Anyway, there styles journalism, celebratory Is Sugar Toxic Apr If Lustig right, then excessive consumption sugar primary reason numbers obese diabetic Americans skyrocketed past Oz, many carbohydrate diet last Robert Atkins Why We Get Fat: And What to Do About It

    • Format Kindle
    • 0307272702
    • Why We Get Fat: And What to Do About It
    • Gary Taubes
    • Anglais
    • 2017-07-16T11:02+02:00