↓ Free pdf How We Learn: The Surprising Truth About When, Where, and Why It Happens download in english ⣂ Kindle Ebook Author Benedict Carey ⤬

↓ Free pdf How We Learn: The Surprising Truth About When, Where, and Why It Happens download in english ⣂ Kindle Ebook Author Benedict Carey ⤬ ↓ Free pdf How We Learn: The Surprising Truth About When, Where, and Why It Happens download in english ⣂ Kindle Ebook Author Benedict Carey ⤬ Chapter OneThe Story MakerThe Biology of MemoryThe science of learning is, at bottom, a study of the mental muscle doing the workthe living brainand how it manages the streaming sights, sounds, and scents of daily life That it does so at all is miracle enough That it does so routinely is beyond extraordinary.Think of the waves of information rushing in every waking moment, the hiss of the kettle, the flicker of movement in the hall, the twinge of back pain, the tang of smoke Then add the demands of a typical layer of multitaskingsay, preparing a meal while monitoring a preschooler, periodically returning work emails, and picking up the phone to catch up with a friend.Insane.The machine that can do all that at once is than merely complex Its a cauldron of activity Its churning like a kicked beehive.Consider several numbers The average human brain contains 100 billion neurons, the cells that make up its gray matter Most of these cells link to thousands of other neurons, forming a universe of intertwining networks that communicate in a ceaseless, silent electrical storm with a storage capacity, in digital terms, of a million gigabytes Thats enough to hold three million TV shows This biological machine hums along even when its at rest, staring blankly at the bird feeder or some island daydream, using about 90 percent of the energy it burns while doing a crossword puzzle Parts of the brain are highly active during sleep, too.The brain is a dark, mostly featureless planet, and it helps to have a map A simple one will do, to start The sketch below shows several areas that are central to learning the entorhinal cortex, which acts as a kind of filter for incoming information the hippocampus, where memory formation begins and the neocortex, where conscious memories are stored once theyre flagged as keepers.This diagram is than a snapshot It hints at how the brain operates The brain has modules, specialized components that divide the labor The entorhinal cortex does one thing, and the hippocampus does another The right hemisphere performs different functions from the left one There are dedicated sensory areas, too, processing what you see, hear, and feel Each does its own job and together they generate a coherent whole, a continually updating record of past, present, and possible future.In a way, the brains modules are like specialists in a movie production crew The cinematographer is framing shots, zooming in tight, dropping back, stockpiling footage The sound engineer is recording, fiddling with volume, filtering background noise There are editors and writers, a graphics person, a prop stylist, a composer working to supply tone, feelingthe emotional contentas well as someone keeping the books, tracking invoices, the facts and figures And theres a director, deciding which pieces go where, braiding all these elements together to tell a story that holds up Not just any story, of course, but the one that best explains the material pouring through the senses The brain interprets scenes in the instants after they happen, inserting judgments, meaning, and context on the fly It also reconstructs them later onwhat exactly did the boss mean by that comment scrutinizing the original footage to see how and where it fits into the larger movie.Its a story of a lifeour own private documentaryand the film crew serves as an animating metaphor for whats happening behind the scenes How a memory forms How its retrieved Why it seems to fade, change, or grow lucid over time And how we might manipulate each step, to make the details richer, vivid, clearer.Remember, the director of this documentary is not some film school graduate, or a Hollywood prince with an entourage Its you.Before wading into brain biology, I want to say a word about metaphors They are imprecise, practically by definition They obscure as much as they reveal And theyre often self serving, crafted to serve some pet purposein the way that the chemical imbalance theory of depression supports the use of antidepressant medication No one knows what causes depression or why the drugs have the effects they do Fair enough, all around Our film crew metaphor is a loose one, to be surebut then so is scientists understanding of the biology of memory, to put it mildly The best we can do is dramatize what matters most to learning, and the film crew does that just fine.To see how, lets track down a specific memory in our own brain.Lets make it an interesting one, too, not the capital of Ohio or a friends phone number or the name of the actor who played Frodo No, lets make it the first day of high school Those tentative steps into the main hallway, the leering presence of the older kids, the gunmetal thump of slamming lockers Everyone over age fourteen remembers some detail from that day, and usually an entire video clip.That memory exists in the brain as a network of linked cells Those cells activateor firetogether, like a net of lights in a department store Christmas display When the blue lights blink on, the image of a sleigh appears when the reds come on, its a snowflake In much the same way, our neural networks produce patterns that the brain reads as images, thoughts, and feelings.The cells that link to form these networks are called neurons A neuron is essentially a biological switch It receives signals from one side andwhen it flips or firessends a signal out the other, to the neurons to which its linked.The neuron network that forms a specific memory is not a random collection It includes many of the same cells that flared when a specific memory was first formedwhen we first heard that gunmetal thump of lockers Its as if these cells are bound in collective witness of that experience The connections between the cells, called synapses, thicken with repeated use, facilitating faster transmission of signals.Intuitively, this makes some sense many remembered experiences feel like mental reenactments But not until 2008 did scientists capture memory formation and retrieval directly, in individual human brain cells In an experiment, doctors at the University of California, Los Angeles, threaded filament like electrodes deep into the brains of thirteen people with epilepsy who were awaiting surgery.This is routine practice Epilepsy is not well understood the tiny hurricanes of electrical activity that cause seizures seem to come out of the blue These squalls often originate in the same neighborhood of the brain for any one individual, yet the location varies from person to person Surgeons can remove these small epicenters of activity but first they have to find them, by witnessing and recording a seizure Thats what the electrodes are for, pinpointing location And it takes time Patients may lie in the hospital with electrode implants for days on end before a seizure strikes The UCLA team took advantage of this waiting period to answer a fundamental question.Each patient watched a series of five to ten second video clips of well known shows like Seinfeld and The Simpsons, celebrities like Elvis, or familiar landmarks After a short break, the researchers asked each person to freely recall as many of the videos as possible, calling them out as they came to mind During the initial viewing of the videos, a computer had recorded the firing of about one hundred neurons The firing pattern was different for each clip some neurons fired furiously and others were quiet When a patient later recalled one of the clips, say of Homer Simpson, the brain showed exactly the same pattern as it had originally, as if replaying the experience.Its astounding to see this in a single trial the phenomenon is strong, and we knew we were listening in the right place, the senior author of the study, Itzhak Fried, a professor of neurosurgery at UCLA and Tel Aviv University, told me.There the experiment ended, and its not clear what happened to the memory of those brief clips over time If a person had seen hundreds of Simpsons episodes, then this five second clip of Homer might not stand out for long But it could If some element of participating in the experiment was especially strikingfor example, the sight of a man in a white coat fiddling with wires coming out of your exposed brain as Homer belly laughedthen that memory could leap to mind easily, for life.My first day of high school was in September 1974 I can still see the face of the teacher I approached in the hallway when the bell rang for the first class I was lost, the hallway was swarmed, my head racing with the idea that I might be late, might miss something I can still see streams of dusty morning light in that hallway, the ugly teal walls, an older kid at his locker, stashing a pack of Winstons I swerved beside the teacher and said, Excuse me in a voice that was louder than I wanted He stopped, looked down at my schedule a kind face, wire rimmed glasses, wispy red hair.You can follow me, he said, with a half smile Youre in my class.Saved.I have not thought about that for than thirty five years, and yet there it is Not only does it come back but it does so in rich detail, and it keeps filling itself out the longer I inhabit the moment heres the sensation of my backpack slipping off my shoulder as I held out my schedule now the hesitation in my step, not wanting to walk with a teacher I trailed a few steps behind.This kind of time travel is what scientists call episodic, or autobiographical memory, for obvious reasons It has some of the same sensual texture as the original experience, the same narrative structure Not so with the capital of Ohio, or a friends phone number We dont remember exactly when or where we learned those things Those are what researchers call semantic memories, embedded not in narrative scenes but in a web of associations The capital of Ohio, Columbus, may bring to mind images from a visit there, the face of a friend who moved to Ohio, or the grade school riddle, Whats round on both sides and high in the middle This network is factual, not scenic Yet it, too, fills in as the brain retrieves Columbus from memory.In a universe full of wonders, this has to be on the short list Some molecular bookmark keeps those neuron networks available for life and gives us nothing less than our history, our identity.Scientists do not yet know how such a bookmark could work Its nothing like a digital link on a computer screen Neural networks are continually in flux, and the one that formed back in 1974 is far different from the one I have now Ive lost some detail and color, and I have undoubtedly done a little editing in retrospect, maybe a lot.Its like writing about a terrifying summer camp adventure in eighth grade, the morning after it happened, and then writing about it again, six years later, in college The second essay is much different You have changed, so has your brain, and the biology of this change is shrouded in mystery and colored by personal experience Still, the scene itselfthe plotis fundamentally intact, and researchers do have an idea of where that memory must live and why Its strangely reassuring, too If that first day of high school feels like its right there on the top of your head, its a nice coincidence of language Because, in a sense, thats exactly where it is.For much of the twentieth century scientists believed that memories were diffuse, distributed through the areas of the brain that support thinking, like pulp in an orange Any two neurons look or less the same, for one thing and they either fire or they dont No single brain area looked essential for memory formation.Scientists had known since the nineteenth century that some skills, like language, are concentrated in specific brain regions Yet those seemed to be exceptions In the 1940s, the neuroscientist Karl Lashley showed that rats that learned to navigate a maze were largely unfazed when given surgical injuries in a variety of brain areas If there was some single memory center, then at least one of those incisions should have caused severe deficits Lashley concluded that virtually any area of the thinking brain was capable of supporting memory if one area was injured, another could pick up the slack.In the 1950s, however, this theory began to fall apart Brain scientists began to discover, first, that developing nerve cellsbaby neurons, so to speakare coded to congregate in specific locations in the brain, as if preassigned a job Youre a visual cell, go to the back of the brain You, over there, youre a motor neuron, go straight to the motor area This discovery undermined the interchangeable parts hypothesis.The knockout punch fell when an English psychologist named Brenda Milner met a Hartford, Connecticut, man named Henry Molaison Molaison was a tinkerer and machine repairman who had trouble keeping a job because he suffered devastating seizures, as many as two or three a day, which came with little warning and often knocked him down, out cold Life had become impossible to manage, a daily minefield In 1953, at the age of twenty seven, he arrived at the office of William Beecher Scoville, a neurosurgeon at Hartford Hospital, hoping for relief.Molaison probably had a form of epilepsy, but he did not do well on antiseizure drugs, the only standard treatment available at the time Scoville, a well known and highly skilled surgeon, suspected that whatever their cause the seizures originated in the medial temporal lobes Each of these lobestheres one in each hemisphere, mirroring one another, like the core of a split applecontains a structure called the hippocampus, which was implicated in many seizure disorders.Scoville decided that the best option was to surgically remove from Molaisons brain two finger shaped slivers of tissue, each including the hippocampus It was a gamble it was also an era when many doctors, Scoville prominent among them, considered brain surgery a promising treatment for a wide variety of mental disorders, including schizophrenia and severe depression And sure enough, postop, Molaison had far fewer seizures.He also lost his ability to form new memories.Every time he had breakfast, every time he met a friend, every time he walked the dog in the park, it was as if he was doing so for the first time He still had some memories from before the surgery, of his parents, his childhood home, of hikes in the woods as a kid He had excellent short term memory, the ability to keep a phone number or name in mind for thirty seconds or so by rehearsing it, and he could make small talk He was as alert and sensitive as any other young man, despite his loss Yet he could not hold a job and lived, so than any mystic, in the moment From the Hardcover edition.This book is a revelation I feel as if Ive owned a brain for fifty four years and only now discovered the operating manual For two centuries, psychologists and neurologists have been quietly piecing together the mysteries of mind and memory as they relate to learning and knowing Benedict Carey serves up their most fascinating, surprising, and valuable discoveries with clarity, wit, and heart I wish Id read this when I was seventeen.Mary Roach, bestselling author of Stiffand Gulp How We Learn makes for a welcome rejoinder to the faddish notion that learning is all about the hours put in Learners, Benedict Carey reminds us, are not automatons The New York Times Book Review The insights of How We Learn apply to far than just academic situations Anyone looking to learn a musical instrument would benefit from understanding what frequency and type of practice is most effective Even readers with little practical use for Careys information will likely find much of it fascinating, such as how intuition can be a teachable skill, or that giving practice exams at the very beginning of a semester improves grades How We Learn is a valuable, entertaining tool for educators, students and parents Shelf Awareness How We Learn is than a new approach to learning it is a guide to making the most out of life Who wouldnt be interested in that Scientific AmericanWhether you struggle to remember a clients name, aspire to learn a new language, or are a student battling to prepare for the next test, this book is a must I know of no other source that pulls together so much of what we know about the science of memory and couples it with practical, practicable advice.Daniel T Willingham, professor of psychology at the University of Virginia and author of Raising Readers in an Age of Distraction How We Learn is as fun to read as it is important, and as much about how to live as it is about how to learn Benedict Careys skills as a writer, plus his willingness to mine his own history as a student, give the book a wonderful narrative quality that makes it all the accessibleand all the effective as a tutorial.Robert A Bjork, Distinguished Research Professor, Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles Fact 1 Your brain is a powerful and eccentric machine, capable of performing astonishing feats of memory and skill Fact 2 Benedict Carey has written a book that will inspire and equip you to use your brain in a effective way Fact 3 You should use your brainright nowto buy this book for yourself and for anyone who wants to learn faster and better.Daniel Coyle, bestselling author of The Talent Code From the Hardcover edition. Mindless Eating Why We Eat More Than Think Brian Mindless Wansink on FREE shipping qualifying offers This book will literally change the way you think about your next meal Food psychologist revolutionizes our awareness of how much Front Matter How People Learn Brain, Mind, Experience Expanded Edition Experience, and School Committee Developments in Science Learning John DBransford, Ann LBrown, Rodney RCocking, editors with additional material from Tizag Tutorials Welcome to Tizag Tutorials was designed teach beginner web programmers use HTML CSS invite begin tutorials right away learn English Spanish Dictionary WordReference learn Translation Spanish, pronunciation, forum discussions MaxxERP Online Retail Chain POS Billing Inventory are a stationery manufacturer trader multiple branches Vapi, Gujarat Maxx has made job very easy It takes care production, trading, accounting, inventory, taxation reports all that is expected software run business efficiently Bitcoin Cryptocurrency Technologies Coursera Bitcoin Princeton University To really understand what special Bitcoin, we need it works at technical level ll address important questions such as What Do Lockheed Martin STELaRLab national research development operations centre for current portfolio Australia Why sentimental Does serve purpose Function do get teary eyed song What s link between smell memory emotions wrong sentimentality know APA Style APA Style Resources learning Style, including online courses, free tutorials, Blog, cite sources format papers title page reference Jobs Property Management Multitunity Alliance Jobs Ready find career property management As apartment industry heats up, re search best brightest talent join teams LinkWithin Related Posts Thumbnails Don t Let Your Past Stories Go Waste retrieve index stories blog archive, not just recent stories, making them accessible new or casual readers who would otherwise encounter Psychology Today Health, Help, Happiness Find Therapist Signs You Know Matters Values bring distinction life don them, choose And when do, path fulfillment Industry Solutions IBM Discover IBM breakthrough technologies transforming industries smarter ways business, growth opportunities strategies compete win Editorial heart every Exclusive content experts Garry Kasparov, Ari Zoldan, Shep Hyken, All About DNT Not Track DNT browser setting requests application disable its tracking an individual user When turn browser, sends signal websites, analytics companies, ad networks, plug providers, other services while browsing stop activity How Google uses information sites apps Many websites improve their keep Mind, EntheosWeb Web Graphic Design Solutions Entheos ready website templates, custom services, low cost solutions loads resources purpose a Choose language Choisir la langue Home Search Contact us Using this Site Government Alberta Copyright DisclaimerHow The Surprising Truth When, Benedict Carey award winning science reporter been New York Times since , one newspaper most emailed reporters He graduated Colorado bachelor degree math Northwestern master journalism, written health Narcissism Malady Me Times Dec In psychiatry, serious businessThese disorders severely disabling, approach proposes phase out five dependent, histrionic, schizoid paranoid Richard Wikipedia Richard Pepe Palermo, January Studio City, April Italian American television film actor director appeared dozens programs movies s, notably Ace Hole directed by Billy WilderBenedict Frank Sinatra Rat Pack Benedict Cumberbatch IMDb Cumberbatch, Actor Imitation Game Timothy Carlton born raised London, England His parents, Wanda Ventham Rotten Tomatoes Celebrity Profile Check latest photo gallery, biography, pics, pictures, interviews, news, forums blogs Tomatoes Biography Cumberbatch Film Ironbark Greville Wynne Rio announced Gypsy Boy Walsh Stop Time Tom Hazard Current War Thomas Edison hold Mowgli Shere Khan Rogue Male unnamed lead Attached Magician Jasper Maskelyne Doctor Strange Stephen Vincent Repressed Memory Literature Feb Madame de Tourvel closest got winner, said Dr Harrison Pope, professor psychiatry Harvard author paper Wikipdia, enciclopdia livre Biografia nasceu em julho Londres filho dos atores cujo nome verdadeiro e tem uma meia irm cerca anos mais velha, fruto primeiro casamento da sua me O seu bisav, Henry Arnold CMG, era o Karriere spilte i flere kjente filmer fr han ble bermt Sherlock, som Starter Om forlatelse og Other Boleyn Girl men noe mindre roller, alts fikk sitt store gjennombrudd Sherlock Holmes Serien har forelpig gtt fire sesonger, siste med n spesialepisode Vikipedi CBE d Temmuz Londra ngiliz dizi, tiyatro ve sinema oyuncusuCumberbatch Manchester niversitesi nden mezun oldu itimine Mzik Dramatik Sanatlar Akademisinde devam ederek, Klasik Oyunculukta Yksek Lisans kazand y l nda Hawking adl How We Learn: The Surprising Truth About When, Where, and Why It Happens

    • Format Kindle
    • 274 pages
    • 0812993896
    • How We Learn: The Surprising Truth About When, Where, and Why It Happens
    • Benedict Carey
    • Anglais
    • 2016-01-10T21:39+03:00