✍ Format Kindle Read [ The Evolution of Beauty: How Darwin's Forgotten Theory of Mate Choice Shapes the Animal World - and Us ] For Free ̶ E-Pub Author Richard O Prum ᾨ

✍ Format Kindle Read [ The Evolution of Beauty: How Darwin's Forgotten Theory of Mate Choice Shapes the Animal World - and Us ] For Free ̶ E-Pub Author Richard O Prum ᾨ ✍ Format Kindle Read [ The Evolution of Beauty: How Darwin's Forgotten Theory of Mate Choice Shapes the Animal World - and Us ] For Free ̶ E-Pub Author Richard O Prum ᾨ CHAPTER 3Manakin DancesHow, and why, has beauty changed within and among bird species over the course of millions of years What determines what any given species finds beautiful What, in short, is the evolutionary history of avian beauty These questions might seem impossible to answer, but we actually have many of the scientific tools we need to address them productively One of the challenges to understanding the evolution of beauty is the complexity of animal displays and mating preferences Fortunately, we do not need to invent a trendy new brand of systems science in order to investigate these complex aesthetic repertoires, because the science of natural historythe observation and description of the lives of organisms in their natural environmentsprovides us with exactly the tools we need Natural history was a critical component of Darwins scientific method and remains a bedrock foundation of much of evolutionary biology today.Once we have gathered information about individual species, we need other scientific methods to compare and analyze them and to uncover their complicated, often hierarchical evolutionary histories The scientific discipline that enables us to do that is called phylogenetics Phylogeny is the history of evolutionaryrelationships among organismswhat Darwin called the great Tree of Life.Darwin proposed that discovery of the Tree of Life should become a major branch of evolutionary biology Unfortunately, research interest in phylogeny was largely abandoned by evolutionary biology during most of the twentieth century However, powerful new methods for reconstructing and analyzing phylogenies have been developed in recent decades, which has led to a revival of interest So, now that the two critical intellectual tools necessary to study the evolution of beautynatural history and phylogeneticsare available, there has never been a better time to be asking questions about how beauty, and the taste for it, evolve.Doing so will help us to understand the process of evolutionary radiationdiversification among speciesin a new way In evolutionary biology, adaptive radiation is the process by which a single common ancestor evolves through natural selection into a diversity of species that have a great variety of ecologies or anatomical structures The amazing diversity of Darwins Finches Geospizinae on the Galpagos Islands is a canonical example of adaptive radiation In this chapter, however, we will investigate another group of birdsthe neotropical manakinsin order to understand a different kind of evolutionary process aesthetic radiation Aesthetic radiation is the process of diversification and elaboration from a single common ancestor through some mechanism of aesthetic selectionespecially mate choice Aesthetic radiation does not preclude the occurrence of adaptive mate choice, but also includes arbitrary mate choice for sexual beauty alone, with all of its often dramatic coevolutionary consequences.The science of beauty requires that we get out of the laboratory and the museum and into the field Fortunately, my bird watching youth was great basic training for doing natural history research on birds in the field I discovered the second critical element of this branch of beauty studiesphylogeneticsas an undergraduate at Harvard University My immersion in formal ornithological studies began in the fall of 1979 with a freshmanseminar, the Biogeography of South American Birds taught by Dr Raymond A Paynter Jr., the curator of birds at the Museum of Comparative Zoology MCZ Dr Paynter introduced me to the intellectual magic of natural history museums Up on the fifth floor of the huge and ancient brick building that housed the Bird Department was a series of rooms where hundreds of thousands of scientific bird specimens were curated During my undergraduate years, the MCZ was my intellectual home I hung out a lot in the bird collections doing bibliographic work and curatorial tasks for Paynter and generally smelling like mothballs.Dr Paynter himself was far too intellectually conservative and cautious to be interested in the revolutionary new field of phylogenetics But I soon discovered that the latest concepts and methods in this field were being hotly debated downstairs in the Romer Library in the weekly meetings of the Biogeography and Systematics Discussion Group In retrospect, this time at Harvard was a golden era for phylogenetics From the meetings of this revolutionary cell in the Romer Library, multiple graduate students went out into the world and made fundamental contributions to the field, helping to bring phylogeny back into the mainstream of evolutionary biology.My own work was profoundly shaped by those weekly discussions in the early 1980s I became fascinated by phylogenetic methods and eager to reconstruct avian family trees For my senior honors project, I worked on the phylogeny and biogeography of toucans and barbets Working at a desk I made for myself on a big table beneath the towering skeleton of an extinct moa in room 507 of the bird collection, I was excited to make observations of toucan plumage and skeletal characters and to construct my first phylogenies I am happy to say that I have been continuously associated with world class scientific collections of birds ever since Only, I dont smell like mothballs any.As graduation approached, I was casting about for what to do next, searching for a research program that would combine my bird watching skills and passion with my new obsession with avian phylogeny Before going on to graduate school, I was desperate to get to South America and to see of the birds I had metin the drawers at the MCZ There were very few tropical bird field guides in those days, so browsing through a museum collection was actually the best way to learn about the birds before actually seeing them in real life Intrigued by the Harvard graduate student Jonathan Coddingtons research using the phylogeny of spiders to test hypotheses about the evolution of orb web weaving behavior, I wanted to make a similar use of phylogeny to study the evolution of bird behavior.At about that time, I met Kurt Fristrup, a Harvard graduate student, who had worked on the behavior of the flamboyantly orange Guianan Cock of the Rock Rupicola rupicola, Cotingidae color plate 5 , one of the planets most amazing birds Kurt suggested, Why dont you go to Suriname to map manakin leks In retrospect, this was one of the most consequential pieces of professional advice I ever received.On a thin branch twenty five feet high in the sun dappled understory of a tropical rain forest in Suriname perches a tiny glossy black bird with a brilliantly golden yellow head, bright white eyes, and ruby red thighsa male Golden headed Manakin Ceratopipra erythrocephala color plate 6 He weighs about a third of an ounce ten grams , or a bit less than two U.S quarters He has a short neck and short tail, giving him a compact body, but he has a nervous energy that belies his almost dumpy appearance He sings a high, soft, descending whistled puuu and peers intently around, hyperaware of his surroundings In moments, a second male whistles back from his perch in an adjacent tree, and then a third nearby The male answers immediately His social environment is obviously the focus of his keen attention In all, there are five males clustered together in the forest They are obscured from one another by foliage, but they are all within earshot of each other.In response to the neighboring calls, the first male draws himself up into a statuesque upright posture with his light colored bill pointing upward After singing an energetic, syncopated, and raspy puu prrrrr pt call, he suddenly flies from his perch toanother branch twenty five yards away After a few seconds, he flies rapidly back to his main perch singing an accelerating crescendo of seven or kew calls in flight His flight path traces a subtle S curve trajectory, first down below the level of the perch and then up above it He lands on the perch from above while uttering a sharp buzzy szzzkkkt Immediately upon landing, the male lowers his head, holds his body horizontal to the branch, and raises his rear up with his legs extended, revealing bright red thighs against his black belly, like a provocatively colored pair of breeches He then slides backward along the perch in the tiny rapid steps of an elegant moonwalk, as if on roller skates In the middle of the moonwalk, he flicks his rounded black wings open vertically above his back for a moment After sliding backward for twelve inches along the branch, the male suddenly lowers and fans his tail, flicks his wings vertically again, and resumes his normal posture.Moments later, the second male Golden headed Manakin flies in and perches on another branch about five yards away The first male immediately flies to join him, and they sit quietly side by sidebut facing away from each otherin the dramatic upright posture Intense, competitive, but mutually tolerant, the two males are deeply engaged with each other.This scene is just a few moments in the bizarre social world of a Golden headed Manakin lek A lek is an aggregation of male display territories Lekking males defend territories, but these territories lack any resources that females might need for reproduction other than sperm no significant food, nest sites, nest materials, or other material assistance to the female Golden headed Manakins defend individual territories between five and ten yards wide, with two to five such territories grouped together Leks are essentially sites where males put themselves on display in order to lure females to mate with them Over the breeding season, individual females visit one or leks, observe male displays, evaluate these displays, and then choose one of those males as their mate.Lek breeding is a form of polygyny one male with many potential mates that results from female mate choice In a lek breeding system, females can select any mate they want, and they are often nearly unanimous in preferring a small fraction of the available males So a relatively few males get to mate with a relatively large number of females The skew in mating success is rather like the contemporary skew in income distribution The most sexually successful males are very successful and account for half or of all the matings, while other males will never have any opportunity to mate in a given year Some males go their whole lives without mating.After mating, female manakins build nests, lay clutches of two eggs, incubate them, and care for the developing young entirely on their own without any help from the males, whose contributions to reproduction end with their sperm donations Because females do all the work, they dont depend on the males for anything, and their independence allows them almost total sexual autonomy This freedom of mate choice has allowed extreme preferences to evolve females only choose the few males whose behavioral andmorphological features meet their very high standards The rest will be losers in the mating game Thus the aesthetic extremity of male manakins is an evolutionary consequence of extreme aesthetic failure, which results from strong sexual selection by mate choice.Female manakins have been choosing their mates in leks for about fifteen million years Over the course of time, the features they have preferred have evolved into an extraordinary diversity of traits and behaviors among the approximately fifty four species of manakins distributed from southern Mexico to northern Argentina Manakin leks are among natures most creative and extreme laboratories of aesthetic evolution For me, they proved the perfect place to study Beauty Happening.Prum sargument is exhilarating The Evolution of Beauty should be widely read, as it will provoke readers, shaking them as reading Hume did to Kant from their dogmatic slumbers I dont see how any biologist could read this book and not walk away at least questioning the idea that adaptation must explain every last trait Survival of the fittest might not be enough to explain nature We might need survival of the prettiest, too Sam Kean, Wall Street Journal Prum draws on decades of study, hundreds of papers, and a lively, literate, and mischievous mind .a delicious read, both seductive and mutinous Prum s attention never strays far from nature, and his writing about birds is minutely detailed, exquisitely observant, deeply informed, and often tenderly sensual David Dobbs, New York Times Book Review The single most provocative book I read this year, one of those books that changes the way you look at everything Everything about this book is unexpected, including the prosefine and often funny Michael Pollan The Evolution of Beauty is at once fascinating, provocative, and totally compelling Anyone interested in science or art or sexwhich is to say everyonewill want to read it Elizabeth Kolbert, author of The Sixth Extinction A fascinating account of beauty and mate choice in birds and other animals Youll be amazed by the weird things that birds do to win mates.Youll also discover why both men and women have armpit hair, why men lack the penis bone widespread in other mammals, and what really happened in the Garden of Eden Jared Diamond, Pulitzer Prize winning author of Guns, Germs, and Steel Amajor intellectual achievement that should hasten the adoption of a expansive style of evolutionary explanation that Darwin himself would have appreciated Nick Romeo, Washington Post A smorgasbord of evolutionary biology, philosophy, and sociology, filtered through Prums experiences as a birdwatcher and his diverse research on everything from dinosaur colors to duck sex Through compelling arguments and colorful examples, Prum launches a counterstrike against the adaptationist regime, in an attempt to put the subjective experience of animals back in the center of biology and to bring beauty back to the sciences Ed Yong, The Atlantic Prums career has been diverse and full, so that reading this fascinating book, we learn about the patterning of dinosaur feathers, consider the evolutionary basis of the human female orgasm, the tyranny of academic patriarchy, and the corkscrewed enormity of a ducks penis Combining this with in depth study of how science selects the ideas it approves of and fine writing about fieldwork results in a rich, absorbing text The dance Prum performs to convince you to take him on as an intellectual partner is beautiful and deserves to be appreciated on its own terms Adrian Barnett, New Scientist Reads like a memoir, argues like a manifesto, and shines with Prum s passion for all things ornithological Erika Lorraine Milam, ScienceLife isnt just a dreary slog of survival It brims with exuberancefrom extravagant plumage to strange courtship rituals In The Evolution of Beauty,Richard Prum takes usinto this universe of delights to discover a fascinating idea that beauty is central to the history of life.Carl Zimmer, author of Parasite Rexand Evolution Making Sense of Life The Evolution of Trust an interactive guide to the game theory why how we trust each other Evolution Wikipedia in organisms occurs through changes heritable traits inherited characteristics organism In humans, for example, eye colour is characteristic and individual might inherit brown trait from one their parents Web The Web web today a growing universe interlinked pages apps, teeming with videos, photos, content What average user doesn t see interplay technologies browsers that makes all this possible Define at Dictionary any process formation or growth development evolution language airplane product such something evolved exploration space decades research Introduction Human Smithsonian lengthy change by which people originated apelike ancestors Scientific evidence shows physical behavioral shared over period approximately six million years Years Darwin s On National Science Foundation, Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia , USA Tel FIRS TDD residents hours kevinmd days agoIt was th hour my call shift, I running on fumes Despite weariness, could first rays morning sunlight coming window patient room natural selection, formulated book Origin Species time as result Merriam Webster brought about important step computers Recent Examples Night Sight next Google computational photography, combining machine learning, clever algorithms, up four seconds exposures generate shockingly good low light images Jason Voorhees Animated YouTube Jan has changed lot since his appearance Friday From skinny child hockey mask slasher rebuilt back again, video goes progression Beauty How Fulfillment FBA service offer sellers lets them store products fulfillment centers, directly pack, ship, provide customer these Survival Prettiest New York Times Sep Richard Prum selected Times Book Review Best Books For rest Movies Movie reviews, news features critics reporters Abtei Prm Die sptere Frstabtei Eifel Ardennen wurde von Bertrada der lteren, Urgromutter Karls des Groen, gestiftetVon Eltern, Pippin dem Jngeren und dessen Frau Jngeren, die Abtei mit Mnchen Benediktinerordens besetzt als Hauskloster Karolinger neugegrndet war stets eng verbunden Familie Feather There are two basic types feather vaned feathers cover exterior body, down underneath pennaceous Also called contour feathers, arise tracts entire body Wine Reviews Archive Decanter Premium All Search Wine Exclusive Articles Magazine Find Panel Tastings News Opinion Columns Dinosaur Etymology taxon Dinosauria formally named paleontologist Sir Owen, who used it refer distinct tribe sub order Saurian Reptiles were then being recognized England around world term derived Ancient Greek deinos meaning terrible, potent fearfully great sauros lizard Book TV Series C SPAN Each weekend, nonfiction books Saturday am ET Monday We invite your comments our site, television programming, you want Index MB MN MBO A T y Haplogroup NW Africa BC aka Adam Y chromosome he may have been non sapiens Homo subsequently bred H women BANGWA, MEACHAM Rachel MEAD MEADE Agnes SHROPSHIRE Alice Anne Bennett MEEDE Catherine Lady th Fallen Brothers Fighter Group Association Click photo full size image Underlined text cemetery link grave site Spokeo People White Pages People Spokeo search engine organizes white listings, public records social network information into simple profiles help safely find learn People GUIDE TOOLS Out TRUTH About Anyone Minutes Direct Access databases Pluma Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre Segn sea su estructura, posicin funcin, existen diferentes clases de plumas Plumas tpicas o contorno son con raquis desarrollado planas, largas ordenadas Young Brands Young Market Company privileged represent industry leading brands supplier partners global icons rising stars, international fine wines boutique craft spirits innovative specialty beers, pride ourselves ability build grow Reverse Phone Lookup Number Spokeo searches thousands sources across billion look most recent owner number, whether landline cell phone location, even The Evolution of Beauty: How Darwin's Forgotten Theory of Mate Choice Shapes the Animal World - and Us

    • Format Kindle
    • 448 pages
    • 0345804570
    • The Evolution of Beauty: How Darwin's Forgotten Theory of Mate Choice Shapes the Animal World - and Us
    • Richard O Prum
    • Anglais
    • 2017-05-09T21:31+02:00